According to the study by Chung et al. (2013), there has been exposure to negative priming in the past that has been reported in various psychological models. Negative priming is the slowing response to the target stimuli as in the case when a person sees a barely visible human approaching him at twilight (Chung et al., 2013). Studies show that it likely results from an interplay of intermittent memory retrieval, selective attention, inhibition strategies and working memory (Kim, Pitt & Myung, 2013; Kastellakis et al., 2015). The imagery formation may stem from a combination of NP stimuli in different complexities even though the comprehensive theoretical account is not established.
The study investigated the presence of varying units of NP effect within a classic Stroop task according to Prime probe combinations. The parallel distributed processing (PDP) model formed the basis of the investigation of different NP subtypes (Chung et al., 2013). It is a quantitative case study of the reaction time of healthy participants during a Stroop task performance. The results of the study show a difference in the reaction time among different NP subtypes by differential disinhibiting. The PDP model helped in investigating the origin of the different potential origin of NP subtypes through the involvement of a working memory and selective attention (Chung et al., 2013). The PDP with working memory was found to stimulate various levels of NP effects with a cross connection with the behavior of an individual as compared to the PDP current model.
The nature of declarative memory and the working memory leads to the accumulation of evidence for target responses and indicates to the different priming effects. Another study shows how PDP model can acquire both exceptions and regularities without sacrificing the general view and nature of hidden representations that enhances the learning process (Kim, Pitt & Myung, 2013). Local disruptions of this system allow the learning of exception situations with a minimal perturbation of generalizability. Also, there is evidence that the hippocampus is useful in encoding declarative memory through mnemonic information that involves distinct regions and several parallel routes (Hitti & Siegelbaum, 2014). The phenomenon of plasticity that affects synaptic properties is the foundation of memory storage is dependent on processes operating in the dendrite level of the brain (Kastellakis et al., 2015). The picture of a barely visible human is thus suggestive of clusters of functionality related to synapses as crucial memory and computational units of storage in the brain.