Open-Air Urinals Cause an Uproar in Paris

When you travel to Paris, do not be amazed by finding extra things, not in the guidebook. Open air urinals! The urinals are an invention of Faltazi. While talking about the urinals, the design studio said were trying to solve the problem of French Capitals uncontrolled urination. Street urinals are topped with a red-pillar box and then covered with a flowerbed. These urinals have been termed as eco-friendly by the designers and they have located them in Paris, in places where public urination is an issue. While the government as seen the invention as intelligent, Paris locals are provoked.

The urinals have the following features:

  • Painted red and they have got signs nearby advertising them
  • A straw layer to enable odor elimination
  • Environmental friendly

A statement released by Paris officials indicated that a person’s one-year urine has enough Phosphorous, Nitrogen, and Potassium enough to fertilize 400 square meters of wheat. The statement, therefore, hinted that the urinals would help tap nutrients from the urine to produce compost for gardens and parks.

Despite the appealing features, locals have written to the town hall in protest. The ‘uritrottoirs,’ French word for urine and pavement, have been branded by the capital residents as indecent, displeasing and terrible. One of the urinals, located on the Ile Saint Louis, overlooks the tourist boats on the River Seine. The location is not very far from Notre Dame an impressive France’s landmark.

Speaking on the issue, Ariel Wiel, Fourth Arrondissement mayor said if they do not do anything men will keep helping themselves in the streets. He added that if the urinals location is the one bothering people, they will relocate them.

Residents had this to say to reporters:

  • Installing urinals in the streets of Paris is an excellent idea to help those who do not respect the surroundings. However, the model is not attractive, and its set up location is bad
  • The neighborhood has a desirable history, but the idea of watching someone urinating is not appealing

Street urinals are not new in France. Paris is not the first. Amsterdam has had them for years and also cities in Australia as well as Belgium.

Old Tradition

Pissoirs, public urinals reference in French, have a history dating back as far as the 1800s. They were installed for men who were traveling to and fro work. While explaining the history of urinals, Raymond Martin, British Toilet Association’s Managing director, said the need to have enclosed cubicles became necessary due to the entrance of women in large numbers; a decade later. The cubicle had seats, toilet paper, and hand basins.

It would cost a penny to use the facilities, an amount equivalent to buying a loaf of bread those days!

Martin added that public toilets became ornamental to the decorative features they had. He also noted that the buildings had the added advantage of offering space to advertisers.

Raymond Martin, however, was quick to add that despite the many centuries that have passed; women are still not well catered for. He blamed inequality of the women for lack of good catering. In the UK, proposals to have public female urinals encounter rejections. The ground being that they will expose women in public.

Everyone needs to use a toilet a day. Men require urinals, perhaps, several times a day. It is a common to see men urinating once the bars let out. Depending on the urge to release oneself, they end up peeing in the streets! Paris city officials have come to rescue the roads of the putrid odor. Urine is not sterile; it contains a lot of microbiomes which once out in public will become a breeding ground for bacteria. The public is being rescued from bacterial infections. Even though, let them relocate the street urinal near the Notre Dame Cathedral.

Just Do It: How to Conquer Fear Using Action

Fear, everyone has it. However, the degrees of fear in each differs. Some use it as a motivation, and some cannot do anything when the fear kicks in. There are however many ways to deal with fear. The methods work, you need to practice using the techniques to conquer the fears. Actions can be used to fight fear as demonstrated below:

Face It

One of the most amazing games today is sky diving. When you are the exit of that plane for the first time, you cannot imagine of what is going to happen. You cannot believe what happens if the parachute refuses to open to your safety when you want it to. Once you have been released to the air and everything is in your control, you cannot imagine you did it. We fear things we have not tried to fight why not face them head on and see the good things that spark out of fear. One wise woman said “Fear sucks!” if you want some proof of this quote you can read this “can failure make you stronger essay“.

Start Now

Sometimes the only thing we need to do is start. Start life, start saving, start exercising, and start praying. Are these harmful things to start doing? The fact that man lives thinking that they will play safe to the end never achieves anything useful for such a person.

The outcome is always sweet, the price we pay for it is no closer to painful, and we still fear to do it. We spend our lives doing most of the hurtful things and still feel scared about the less scary ones like starting a bachelor life on your own. We need to get started on doing some things to overcome fear instantly.

Grind It

Fear is the precursor for failure. A wise man said that “If I do not have the talent, I will compensate it with the willingness to grind” Jack Ma was never a business student; never an IT expert but has celebrated the fruits of e-Commerce without the know-how. He woke up, mobilized, trusted his gut, and fought the fight and hired the best to do the job. They only had to live and work within his vision, and all that resulted from it was a success. If we do not work hard then why fear something we never tried to do.

Offer Your Best Version of Quality

If you are so scared about what may come, why not do what you believe is good work. For people starting in life, the highest goal anyone would want to meet is value. Consumers are not interested in your fear; if you direct your fear towards creating a masterpiece, people will notice. You can get scared after achieving such great things. There you will not have to work to gain the courage to explain your failures, but the confidence to explain your life successes.

Do Not Give Up

If you know that it is possible, do not fear. It is normal to get scared when you do not know what to expect from what you are doing. The most important thing in any choice you will make in life is how you will set up from the ground. The foundation, start, the prime stage they all matter. If you survive this then not only will your business or life be good but also great.

Doing It Builds Confidence

A good feeling comes when you have set the stage. We will celebrate not the finish but first, the start. That you conceptualized the idea and thought it is time to make it a reality will change the way you feel about yourself. You will move from action to action because you have enjoyed the risks and thrive in them. With such boldness, fortune should be a step away. This makes one of the most realistic actions to overcome fear.

Action means that you will do it no matter what. These steps will help overcome fear and fuel success. Success is the sum of all productive actions. Act and the confidence will kick in; you will have the energy to fight your way up to success without falter.

Social Disorganization Theory


Social disorganization theory, throughout its history, has been among the most broadly utilized ecological presumptions of criminal offending (Porter, Capellan & Chintakrindi 1). The theory argues that an individual’s social and physical environments are mainly accountable for the behavioral choices made by a person. Unlike other theories of crime that concentrate more on the individual, social discrimination theory focuses more on locality and attempt to explain the reason as to why some communities experience high crime levels. Mark (1) notes that communities with the highest levels of crime rates have got at least three common problems, poverty, physical dilapidation, and elevated levels of culture and ethnic mixing.

The social disorganization theory

Social organization theory debates that owing to failures in networking abilities and skills of community organizations (business, educational, social services, religious, law enforcement, or health care organizations) a particular neighborhood can experience high levels of crime rates via a collapse in the social order. Delinquency is not caused at the personal level, but rather, is a typical response by an ordinary person to abnormal conditions (Mark 1). The primary assumptions of the theory are highlighted below:

  1. a) Social factors cause crime rather than ill individuals also termed as “environmental determinism.”
  2. b) The breakdown of community-based controls and people residing in disadvantaged communities respond naturally to the conditions of the environment.
  3. c) Rapid rise of immigration within disadvantaged urban communities
  4. d) Disadvantaged communities results to growth of criminal values that substitute ordinary society values

Social discrimination theory argues that an individual’s residential area is more important than the individual’s qualities when predicting criminal activity, and therefore, when dealing with criminality, location matters, according to social disorganization theory (Mark 2).

Visible Signs of Social Disorganization in the City Of Chicago

Urban areas have five distinct districts of natural competition including the central business, transitional, the working class, residential and commuter zones. Indeed, a city evolves via an outward expansion, and successful and desirable zones are the ones that avoid competition for resources in the inner city. The transitional zone is thus, the most disadvantaged and prove the highest levels of crime because the zone is determined by industrial expansion and serves as a point of residential entry for immigrants. The zone also has a broad mixture of high unemployment, cultural groups, poor welfare rates, low real-estate rentals values, low occupational attainment levels, and social institution with miserable community organization abilities. According to Mark (1), despite high in and out movements on the zones, each district hold its features. Social institutions in the zone are not only disadvantaged but also disorganized to accomplish their primary social roles of socializing or training persons to be law abiding members of the neighborhood. Also, the institutions fail to monitor and control the behaviors of the individuals so as to ensure lawful conduct.

Three Main Components of Social Disorganization Theory

Within this setting, social disorganization can be defined as the inability of the local neighborhoods to realize ordinary values of their inhabitants or solve related experienced problems (Porter, Capellan, & Chintakrindi 2). The theory specifies several variables, such as residential instability, ethnic/racial heterogeneity, and poverty, which influence a society’s capacity to formulate and maintain firm organizations of social relationships.

Residential Instability/Mobility

 The rates of residential mobility increases, young violence in countryside communities increases too (Rogers & Pridemore 28). Based on the transitional zone of the Chicago city, the residents have no commitments in their areas because they relocate more frequently, and when the population of a region keeps changing, the dwellers have no chances of developing strong, individual ties amongst each other and participate in society organizations. Therefore, there are no social structures to guide the communities to abide by the law.

Ethnic/Racial Heterogeneity

 Due to ethnic heterogeneity, cultural, racial, and language barriers are set up to the extent that populace secluded themselves from unrelated community members in tiny pockets of minority regions. As a result, they gave up the meaningful connections that might have led to solutions overarching neighborhood problems like crime. Ideally, crime is depicted to arise from associations between ethnic groups, rather than from some groups that are more prone to crime than others (Rogers & Pridemore 28).


 Due to limited local resources and small tax base, members of a community lack resources to help deal with social problems and hence, the occupants of the transitional zone keep seeking to house in less disorganized residential zones. According to Mark (1), poverty facilitates crime but does not in itself cause it owing to deficiency of necessary resources that can be utilized to get rid of criminal behavior.

Policies to Address the Issue of Crime in the City

Perhaps, the social disorganized theory has public policy implications and is utilitarian in real life.  The most significant policies should be to organize the disorganized communities, and services provided to community residents. Furthermore, recreation programs and many other community organizations should be developed to discourage delinquent actions and enhance community involvement. Through improving communities and making more appealing, social controls will be strengthened (Mark 2).

Psychological Models

According to the study by Chung et al. (2013), there has been exposure to negative priming in the past that has been reported in various psychological models. Negative priming is the slowing response to the target stimuli as in the case when a person sees a barely visible human approaching him at twilight (Chung et al., 2013). Studies show that it likely results from an interplay of intermittent memory retrieval, selective attention, inhibition strategies and working memory (Kim, Pitt & Myung, 2013; Kastellakis et al., 2015). The imagery formation may stem from a combination of NP stimuli in different complexities even though the comprehensive theoretical account is not established.

The study investigated the presence of varying units of NP effect within a classic Stroop task according to Prime probe combinations. The parallel distributed processing (PDP) model formed the basis of the investigation of different NP subtypes (Chung et al., 2013). It is a quantitative case study of the reaction time of healthy participants during a Stroop task performance. The results of the study show a difference in the reaction time among different NP subtypes by differential disinhibiting. The PDP model helped in investigating the origin of the different potential origin of NP subtypes through the involvement of a working memory and selective attention (Chung et al., 2013). The PDP with working memory was found to stimulate various levels of NP effects with a cross connection with the behavior of an individual as compared to the PDP current model.

The nature of declarative memory and the working memory leads to the accumulation of evidence for target responses and indicates to the different priming effects.  Another study shows how PDP model can acquire both exceptions and regularities without sacrificing the general view and nature of hidden representations that enhances the learning process (Kim, Pitt & Myung, 2013). Local disruptions of this system allow the learning of exception situations with a minimal perturbation of generalizability.  Also, there is evidence that the hippocampus is useful in encoding declarative memory through mnemonic information that involves distinct regions and several parallel routes (Hitti & Siegelbaum, 2014). The phenomenon of plasticity that affects synaptic properties is the foundation of memory storage is dependent on processes operating in the dendrite level of the brain (Kastellakis et al., 2015). The picture of a barely visible human is thus suggestive of clusters of functionality related to synapses as crucial memory and computational units of storage in the brain.

Personality and Social Problem-Solving: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

Problem-solving skills are essential in dealing with issues arising each and every life situations.  In social problem solving an individual identifies the most effective solutions to problems they go through in their daily living and then find the solutions. An individual utilizes cognitive and behavioral aspects to develop ways of dealing with problems (Nermin, 482). Problem solving is termed as conscious and rational and it is purposefully undertaken. It is believed that the ability to solve problems involves two aspects; problem orientation and problem-solving styles.  Problem orientation is a metacognitive process involving appraisals, general beliefs, ability to solve problems as well and development of feeling towards the problem (Nermin, 482). It includes two aspects, the positive and negative problem orientation. In positive problem orientation, the person accepts the problem at hand as a challenge and believes that it can successfully be solved. However, in negative problem orientation, the individual views the issue as a threat (Nermin, 482) therefore, there is no possibility of a solution thus  resulting in frustrations.

Problem-solving style involves logical problem solving, avoidance style and impulsivity style. These techniques employ both cognitive and behavioral activities thus enabling an individual develops an understanding of the problem, hence promoting effective coping. Through efficient problem solving, a person is able to improve the active coping. However, ineffective problem-solving skills lead to development of mental or emotional health problems.

There is a significant interrelationship between the positive and negative well beings such as aggression, depression, psychological stress and decision making. Research shows that neuroticism aspect of personality is significantly associated with negative problem orientation while conscientiousness and being open were highly related to effective problem solving ability.

Self-esteem is the effective orientation towards self or a person’s view of themselves.  Self-esteem is the primary factor that determines an individual’s wellbeing and social functionality. Research shows that a great interrelationship exists between social problem-solving ability and personality with the self-esteem mediating the two. Besides, there is a positive correlation between self-esteem and emotional stability, openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness. Also, there is a positive correlation of self-esteem with actual problem solving while it is negatively correlated with negative problem orientation.

A cross-sectional design study was conducted involving undergraduate university students in a university from the western part of Turkey. The students were administered with questioners to help determine if there was any relationship that existed between personality, self-esteem, and social problem solving. Another aim was to determine if self-esteem mediates any relationship between personality and problem solving, from the study, it was clear that there is a relationship between personality and social problem solving with self-esteem mediating the two (Nermin, 484). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between social problem solving and extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. However, social problem solving correlated negatively with neuroticism. This, a person with neurotic characteristics has ineffective problem-solving skills and therefore tends to ha have a problem with adjustments ( Nermin, 485). It, therefore, true to say that poor social problem-solving skills lead to ineffective problem solving thereby affecting the mental and emotional health of an individual. Besides, the research also identified social problem solving as a multidimensional aspect covering cognitive components; performance based processing steps and perpetual skills (Nermin, 485).

In conclusion, it is important to note a direct relationship between social problem-solving self-esteem and personality exists. Also, self-esteem is necessary for mediating the indirect relationship between personality and social problem solving. Through knowledge gained from the above skills, counselors, and teachers in schools can be able to develop effective prevention programs. In this, self-esteem should be considered when preparing prevention programs that enhance the development of problem-solving skills. Consequently, the personality of a person cannot be changed through the establishment of a program, but rather it can be improved through alteration of the self-esteem (Nermin, 486).  Therefore, when coming up with counseling programs personality and self-esteem are important aspects that should be considered since they are major determinants of social problem solving.